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Click to see more guide, written by casino math professor Robert Hannumcontains a brief, non-technical discussion of the basic mathematics governing casino games and shows how casinos make money from these games. The article addresses a variety of topics, including house advantage, confusion about win rates, game volatility, player value and comp policies, casino pricing mistakes, and regulatory issues.

Statistical advantages associated with the major games are also provided. Selected Bibliography About the Author. At its core the business of casino gaming is pretty simple. Casinos make money on their games how do casinos make money on craps of the mathematics behind the games. It is all mathematics. With a few notable exceptions, the house always wins - in the long run - because how do casinos make money on craps the mathematical advantage the casino enjoys over the player.

That is what Mario Puzo was referring to in his famous novel Fools Die when his fictional casino boss character, Gronevelt, commented: We built all these hotels on percentages.

We stay rich on the percentage. You can lose faith in everything, religion and God, women and love, good and evil, war and peace. But the percentage will always stand fast.

Puzo is, of course, right on the money about casino gaming. Without the "edge," casinos would not exist. With this edge, and because of a famous mathematical result called the law of large numbers, a casino is guaranteed to win in the long run. Why is Mathematics Important? Critics of the gaming industry have long accused it of creating the name "gaming" and using this as more politically correct than calling itself the "gambling industry.

Instead, they rely on mathematical principles to assure that their establishment generates positive gross gaming revenues. The operator, however, must assure the gaming revenues are sufficient to cover deductions like bad debts, expenses, employees, taxes and interest.

Despite the obvious, many casino professionals limit their advancements by failing to understand the basic mathematics of the games and their relationships to casino profitability. One casino owner would often test his pit bosses by asking how a casino could make money on blackjack if the outcome is determined how do casinos make money on craps by whether the player or the dealer came closest to The answer, typically, was because the casino maintained "a house advantage.

Given that products offered by how do casinos make money on craps are read more, managers must understand why the games provide the expected revenues. In the gaming industry, nothing plays a more important role than mathematics.

Mathematics should also overcome the dangers of superstitions. An owner of a major Las Vegas strip casino once experienced a streak of losing substantial amounts of money to a few "high rollers. His solution was simple. He spent the evening spreading salt throughout the casino to ward off the bad spirits.

Before attributing this example to the idiosyncrasies of one owner, his are atypical only article source their extreme.

Superstition has long been a part of gambling - from both sides of the table. Superstitions can lead to irrational decisions that http://vioara.info/online-casino-mit-live-roulette.php hurt casino profits.

For example, believing that a particular dealer is unlucky against a particular winning player may lead to a decision to change dealers. As many, if not most, players are superstitious. At best, he may resent that the casino hill online william roulette rigged trying to change his luck. At worst, the player may feel the new dealer is skilled in methods to "cool" the game.

Perhaps he is even familiar with stories of old where casinos employed dealers to cheat "lucky" players. Understanding the mathematics of a game also is important for the casino operator to ensure that the reasonable expectations of the players are met. For most persons, gambling depositare bancomat entertainment. It provides an outlet for adult play. As such, persons have the opportunity for a pleasant diversion from ordinary life and from societal and personal pressures.

As an entertainment alternative, however, players may consider the value of the gambling experience. For example, some people may have the option of either spending a hundred dollars during an evening by going to a professional basketball game or at a licensed casino. How do casinos make money on craps the house advantage is too strong and the person loses his money too quickly, he may not value that casino entertainment experience. On the other hand, if a casino can entertain him for an evening, and he enjoys a "complimentary" meal or drinks, he may want to repeat the experience, even over a professional basketball game.

Likewise, new casino games themselves may succeed or fail based on player expectations. In recent years, casinos have debuted a variety of new games that attempt to garner player interest and keep their attention. Regardless of whether a game is fun or interesting to play, most often a player will not want to play games where his money is lost too quickly or where he has a exceptionally remote chance of returning home with winnings.

Mathematics also plays an important part in meeting players' expectations as to the possible consequences of his gambling activities. If gambling involves rational decision-making, it would appear irrational to how do casinos make money on craps money where your opponent has a better chance of winning than you do.

Adam Smith suggested that all gambling, where the operator has an advantage, is irrational. He wrote "There is not, however, a more certain proposition in mathematics than that the more tickets [in a lottery] you advertise upon, how do casinos make money on craps more likely you are a loser.

Adventure upon all the tickets in the lottery, and you lose for certain; and the greater the number of your tickets, the nearer you approach to this certainty.

Even us gambling players online the house has an advantage, however, a gambler may be justified if the amount lost means little how do casinos make money on craps him, but the potential gain would elevate him to a higher standing of living.

He could save or gamble this money. Even if he did this for years, the savings would not elevate his how do casinos make money on craps status to another level. While the odds of winning are remote, it may provide the only opportunity to move to a higher economic class. Since the casino industry is heavily regulated and some of the standards set forth by regulatory bodies involve mathematically related issues, casino managers also should understand the mathematical aspects relating to gaming regulation.

Gaming regulation is principally dedicated to assuring that the games offered in the casino are fair, honest, and that players get paid if they win. Fairness is often expressed in the regulations as either requiring a minimum payback to the player or, in more extreme cases, as dictating the actual rules of the games offered.

Casino executives should understand the impact that rules changes have on the payback to players to assure they meet regulatory standards. Equally important, casino executives should understand how government mandated rules would impact their gaming visit web page. The player's chances of winning in a casino game and the rate at which he wins or loses money depends on the game, the rules in effect for that game, and for some games his level of skill.

The amount of money the player can expect to win best online casino bitcoin lose best casino the long run - if the bet is made over how do casinos make money on craps over again - is called the player's wager expected value EVor expectation.

When the player's wager expectation is negative, he will how do casinos make money on craps money in the long run. When the wager expectation is viewed from the casino's perspective i. For the roulette example, the house advantage is 5.

The formal calculation is as follows: When this EV calculation is performed for a 1-unit amount, the negative of the resulting value is the house edge. Here are the calculations for bets on a single-number in double-zero and single-zero roulette. Double-zero roulette single number bet: Single-zero roulette single number bet: The house advantage represents the long run percentage of the wagered money that will be retained by the casino. How do casinos make money on craps is also called the house edge, the "odds" i.

Regardless of the method used to compute it, the house advantage represents the price to the player of playing the game. Because this positive house edge exists for virtually all bets in a casino ignoring the poker room and sports book where a few professionals can make a livinggamblers are faced with an uphill and, in the long run, losing battle.

There are some exceptions. Occasionally the casino will even offer a promotion that gives the astute player a positive expectation. These promotions are usually mistakes - sometimes casinos don't check the math - and are terminated once the casino realizes the player has the edge.

But by and large the player will lose money in the long run, and the house edge is a measure of how fast the money will be lost.

The trick to intelligent casino gambling - at least from the mathematical expectation point of view - is to avoid the games and bets with the large house advantages. Some casino games are pure chance - no amount of skill or strategy can alter the odds. These games include roulette, craps, baccarat, keno, the big-six wheel of fortune, and slot machines. Of these, baccarat and craps offer the best odds, with house advantages of 1.

Roulette how do casinos make money on craps slots cost the player more - house advantages of 5. Games where an element of skill can affect the house advantage include blackjack, video poker, and the four popular poker-based table games: Blackjack, the most popular of all table games, offers the skilled player some of the best odds in http://vioara.info/goldfish-online-slot-machine.php casino. The house advantage varies slightly depending on the rules and number of decks, but a player using basic strategy faces little or no disadvantage in a single-deck game and only a 0.

Complete basic strategy tables can be found in many books and many casino-hotel gift shops sell color-coded credit card size versions.

Rule variations favorable to the player include fewer decks, dealer stands on soft seventeen worth 0. If the dealer hits soft seventeen it will cost you, as will any restrictions on when you can double down. Probability represents the long run ratio of of times an outcome occurs to of times experiment is conducted.

Odds represent the long run ratio of of times an outcome does not occur to of times an outcome occurs. The true how do casinos make money on craps of an event represent the payoff that would make the bet on that event fair. Confusion about Win Rate. There are all kinds of percentages in the world of gaming.

Win percentage, theoretical win percentage, hold percentage, and house advantage come to mind. Sometimes casino bosses use these percentages interchangeably, as if they are just different names for the same thing. Admittedly, in some cases this is correct.


How do casinos make money on craps How to Play Craps & Win Money!

This is a controversial article because it is going to present a different view on how to determine what are the best bets on the crap layout. For example, if someone were to ask you to select which of the four bets is the best bet, which one would you, pick? To ensure themselves a how do casinos make money on craps income they must have a mathematical advantage over every crap shooter at all times.

How do they create their advantage in the game of craps? They do it in two different ways but with the same result.

Take a bet on the pass line this web page example. Based on the rules for winning a pass line bet, for every 1, bets a player makes, he will win on average and lose In other words the rules favor the casino winning more bets than the player. The casino creates its advantage on other crap bets a little differently. Take the bet on any seven whihc is a one-roll bet that the dice will show a 7. You see the number 7 can be rolled in 6 different dice combinations out of a possible 36 combinations.

You can only roll the number click here with a how do casinos make money on craps of dice when the following numbers show: Any other dice combination — like 3,6 or 2,1 — click yield a non-7 number.

There are in fact 30 combinations that yield a non-7 therefore the odds that a 7 will appear are 30 to 6 or by rounding how do casinos make money on craps to 1. That is the true mathematical odds against rolling the dice and having a 7 show. But being the smart business people that they are, they pay off a winning bet not at 5 to 1 odds but rather at 4 to 1 odds.

By simply short changing the player one chip when he wins, the how do casinos make money on craps have discretely created their edge on this bet. Frank Scoblete says it best: The casinos bank free online slots line this fact day in and day out.

Not really, because the number of times a bet wins or loses per unit of time has not been factored into the equation. Think about it for a minute. Is the number of times you win or lose a pass line bet per hour the same or different then say a field bet? How do casinos make money on craps about a bet on any craps or the place bet on the 6?

In fact they are not the same. The cost per hour is just what its name implies. You can expect in most well run games the dice will roll about times per hour. The number of pass line decisions that occur in those rolls is Therefore the cost per hour is simply. By doing similar calculations for every bet you can compute each bet cost per hour and then rank them Table 2. Such is the case with the hardway bet on the 6 and 8.

Even though the bet is ranked low in Table 1 because of its high casino edge, it suddenly becomes a better bet when you look at its cost per hour ranking in Table 2. Take a look at the hourly cost of some of the proposition bets in Table 2.

If you like to bet the field, please do so in a casino which pays double on the 2 and triple on the Also note how the place bet on the 6 and 8 ranks high in both tables.

If you like betting on the numbers you better pay close attention to Table 2. The numbers clearly show how much more it will cost you to buy a number vs.

Keep in mind that the cost per hour calculations and rankings in Table 2 is based how do casinos make money on craps a specific bet size. You must also keep the cost per hour rankings in perspective. So what about the odds bet which is noticeably missing from Table 2?

Suppose the player wagers doubles odds. Review the numbers in Table 2 before you hit the crap tables to determine what it is really costing you to play.

And remember when it comes to playing craps, time is really money. Published sinceBJI Members have access to over articles on blackjack — a blackjack library.

For details on this special offer, go to: Casinos by State U. Casinos by City Casino Profiles. How to gamble videos How to gamble podcasts How to play slot machines How to play video poker Buy video poker software How to play blackjack How to play craps How to play roulette How to play baccarat How how do casinos make money on craps play let it ride How to play three card poker The casino comping system Help for problem gamblers Gambling Stories.

When It Comes To Playing Craps, Time is Money This is a controversial article because it is going to present a different view on how to determine what are com online slot machine best bets on the crap layout.


How to Bet in Blackjack

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